Ask the Weather Guys: Is COVID-19 leading to cleaner air?

Ask the Weather Guys: Is COVID-19 leading to cleaner air?

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Q: Is COVID-19 leading to cleaner air?

A: Many states have implemented lockdowns and shelter-in-place or “safer at home” orders to help contain the spread of the disease caused by the new coronavirus.

This response to the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced traffic and reduced production by industrial plants. This response has improved the quality of the air we breathe.

Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide is a by-product of burning fossil fuels for transportation and electricity generation. Nitrogen dioxide, or NO2, is also a harmful substance and is an indicator of air quality.

NASA manages instruments on satellites that can monitor global pollution. One of those instruments is the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). In addition to monitoring global ozone, OMI also makes measurements of the atmospheric concentration of NO2.

The OMI measurements show less air pollution over the northeast United States in March 2020, when compared with the average values for the month of March between 2015 and 2019. The nitrogen dioxide levels are down about 30% over major metropolitan areas, including Washington, D.C., New York City, Philadelphia and Boston.

The European Space Agency (ESA) also manages satellites that observe and track air pollution. Those satellites also observed a sharp decrease in nitrogen dioxide over Italy after stay-at-home orders.

The reduced emissions suggest that people are taking steps to reduce their exposure by staying home. Measurements from satellites showed decreasing concentrations of NO2 over China in late January, coinciding with its nationwide quarantine.

Steve Ackerman and Jonathan Martin, professors in the UW-Madison department of atmospheric and oceanic sciences, are guests on WHA radio (970 AM) at 11:45 a.m. the last Monday of each month. Send them your questions at stevea@ssec.wisc.edu or jemarti1@wisc.edu.

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